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Gotzler, Felix, Nico Nachtigall, and Konstantin Krauss. 2024. “Substituting Car Trips: Does Intermodal Mobility Decrease External Costs and How Does It Affect Travel Times? An Analysis Based on GPS Tracking Data.” Findings, July. https://doi.org/10.32866/001c.120432.
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  • Figure 1. Cost per pkm for different mono- and intermodal trips with respective trip distances and relative shares of trip lengths (short: < 1 km, medium: 1-5 km, long: > 5 km). Dotted bars indicate relative shares of trip lengths within each mode/modal combination (right y-axis).
  • Figure 2. Modal distribution optimized for minimal external costs (upper graph) along with the resulting residual external costs after factoring in an accepted percentage increase in travel time (lower graph).
  • Figure 3. Analysis of deviations of distance and duration between recorded trips and routed trips for different modes.
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This study quantifies the reduction in external costs and changes in travel times resulting from the shift from car use to intermodal travel in Munich, based on real-world tracking data. By re-routing all car trips and calculating the travel times, distances, and externalities of alternative modes, we demonstrate that without increasing travel time, external costs can be reduced by 21 %, and by up to 77 % if a doubling of travel time is accepted. These findings highlight the significant benefits of intermodal mobility for urban transportation planning and underline its importance as a viable alternative to the private car.

Accepted: June 25, 2024 AEST