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Tokey, Ahmad Ilderim, and Shefa Arabia Shioma. 2022. “Spatial Association Between Dog Ownership and Crime Rate in New York City.” Findings, July. https://doi.org/10.32866/001c.37094.
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  • Table 1. Descriptive statistics
  • Figure 1. Spatial distribution of dog ownership per 100 families in 2019 (left) and annual property crime rate in 2016-2018 (right) in zip areas of New York city
  • Table 2. GWR model result (Dependent variable: dog ownership rate in 2019)
  • Figure 2. The local coefficient estimates of crime rate (left) and t-statistics (right)
  • Table A. Dog breeds considered in this study

Abstract

This paper identifies the spatial relationship between dog ownership and the property crime rate in New York City. This zip-code level study reveals that the dog ownership rate in 2019 positively correlates with the crime rate in past three years (2016-2018). It also finds that areas with high poverty rates, high proportions of Asian and Black people, and larger households (more than two) have lower dog-ownership rates than their counterparts. Areas with denser sidewalks also correlate with high dog-ownership rates. The finding underscores the role of dogs in increasing the feeling of safety in high crime rate areas.

Accepted: July 14, 2022 AEST

Appendix

Table A. Dog breeds considered in this study
Breed name Count % Breed name Count %
Labrador Retriever 2219 12.95 Bull Terrier 99 0.58
Labrador Retriever Crossbreed 2110 12.31 Collie, Border 98 0.57
American Pit Bull Mix / Pit Bull Mix 1733 10.11 Great Dane 90 0.53
American Pit Bull Terrier/Pit Bull 1194 6.97 Basenji 89 0.52
Jack Russell Terrier 790 4.61 Cane Corso 85 0.50
German Shepherd Crossbreed 744 4.34 Schnauzer, Standard 83 0.48
Terrier Crossbreed 575 3.36 Basset Hound 80 0.47
Dachshund 507 2.96 Wire Fox Terrier 79 0.46
Boxer 424 2.47 Weimaraner 71 0.41
American Staffordshire Terrier 359 2.10 Coonhound, Black and Tan 70 0.41
Dachshund Smooth Coat 328 1.91 Portuguese Water Dog 70 0.41
Shepard Crossbreed 310 1.81 Akita 69 0.40
Dachshund Smooth Coat Miniature 279 1.63 Samoyed 69 0.40
Rottweiler 257 1.50 Coonhound, Treeing Walker 57 0.33
Dachshund Crossbreed 243 1.42 Bull Dog, American 56 0.33
Australian Cattle dog 222 1.30 Rottweiler Crossbreed 53 0.31
Jack Russell Terrier Crossbreed 203 1.18 Alaskan Malamute 50 0.29
Border Collie 197 1.15 American Foxhound 45 0.26
Staffordshire Bull Terrier 163 0.95 Mastiff 44 0.26
American Bully 160 0.93 Basset Hound Crossbreed 39 0.23
Bernese Mountain Dog 159 0.93 Dachshund, Wirehaired 26 0.15
Rat Terrier 159 0.93 Coonhound, Blue Tick 25 0.15
Dachshund, Long Haired Miniature 158 0.92 Pointer, German Shorthaired 23 0.13
Siberian Husky Crossbreed 155 0.90 Bloodhound Crossbreed 20 0.12
Boxer Crossbreed 151 0.88 Bloodhound 17 0.10
American Eskimo dog 147 0.86 Afghan Hound 16 0.09
Border Collie Crossbreed 146 0.85 Pharaoh Hound 16 0.09
Doberman Pinscher 137 0.80 Russell Terrier 14 0.08
Shetland Sheepdog 134 0.78 English Foxhound 13 0.08
Australian Cattle Dog 132 0.77 Mastiff, Bull 12 0.07
Pointer 131 0.76 Saint Bernard 11 0.06
Italian Greyhound 126 0.74 Greater Swiss Mountain Dog 8 0.05
Collie Crossbreed 123 0.72 Ibizan Hound 8 0.05
Rhodesian Ridgeback 114 0.67 Irish Wolfhound 8 0.05
Greyhound 113 0.66 American Leopard Hound 3 0.02
Dachshund, Long Haired 108 0.63 Polish Hound 3 0.02
Border Terrier 101 0.59 Afghan Hound Crossbreed 2 0.01
Great Pyrenees 101 0.59 Coonhound, Redbone 1 0.01
Tibetan Terrier 100 0.58 Scottish Deerhound 1 0.01