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Widita, Alyas Abibawa, Dyah Titisari Widyastuti, and Ikaputra. 2021. “When the Train Finally Comes:  Impact of New Transit Opening on Urban Kampung Residents’ Personal Motorized Vehicle Use.” Findings, December.
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  • Figure 1. Study area
  • Table 1. Comparison of weekly VKT on personal vehicles (auto + motorcycle)
  • Table 2. Difference-in-differences regression
  • Table 3. Self-assessed travel habits before-after the MRT Jakarta’s opening
  • Figure 2. Respondents’ self-assessed travel habits before and after the MRT Jakarta’s opening
  • Supp. Table 1. Comparison of weekly VKT on personal vehicles (auto + motorcycle), household-level
  • Supp. Table 2. Difference-in-differences regression, household-level
  • Supp. Table 3. Before-after MRT sample characteristics

Abstract

We estimate the impact of the opening of Indonesia’s first subway– the MRT Jakarta – on urban kampung residents’ personal motorized vehicle use. We employed a quasi-experimental approach through a two-wave panel survey. We assigned residents living within the designated TOD boundaries into a treatment group and those living farther away into a control group. Using difference-in-differences models, we find insignificant effects of the MRT Jakarta opening where treatment respondents logged 7.5 fewer weekly vehicle kilometers traveled than control counterparts. There was no substantial difference in the respondents’ self-assessed travel habits between treatment and control groups.

Accepted: December 03, 2021 AEST

Supplementary materials

Household-level analyses

In addition, we also run the analyses using a household-level dataset. Out of the total 87 households in the dataset, 39 households reside in the treatment areas and the remaining 48 households live farther away. Similar to the individual-level observations, descriptive statistics show a comparatively larger increase in VKT for control households than treatment households (Supp. Table 1). Using a DID approach, our estimate (Supp. Table 2) suggests that households near the stations may have logged 26 fewer weekly VKT than households living farther away, all else equal. However, the coefficient was statistically insignificant (p-value > 0.1).

Supp. Table 1. Comparison of weekly VKT on personal vehicles (auto + motorcycle), household-level
Respondents N Period Weekly VKT (km)
Average Changes
Control 48 Before MRT 104.46 53.30
After MRT 157.75
Treatment 39 Before MRT 164.85 11.69
After MRT 176.54

Note: *p<0.1; **p<0.05; ***p<0.01

Supp. Table 2. Difference-in-differences regression, household-level
Weekly VKT (km)
(1) (2) (3)
Coef. t Coef. t Coef. t
Treatment
(Control:0, Treatment:1)
53.29** 2.36 46.72 1.73 45.04 1.66
(21.73) (33.31) (33.76)
Time
(Pre-MRT: 0, Post-MRT:1)
60.39** 2.20 38.89 1.41 36.43 1.32
(29.38) (30.28) (30.73)
DID
(Treatment*Time)
-41.60 -1.15 -27.76 -0.73 -25.61 -0.70
(36.93) (40.44) (40.34)
Socioeconomic N Y Y
Station area fixed effects N N Y
N 174 174 174
R2 0.05 0.12 0.15
Adjusted R2 0.04 0.06 0.07

Note: *p<0.1; **p<0.05; ***p<0.01

Sample characteristics

Supp. Table 3. Before-after MRT sample characteristics
Before MRT After MRT
Treatment Control Treatment Control
N percent N percent N percent N percent
Employment
Employed (Full-time) 47 65.3 52 63.4 64 88.9 78 95.1
Employed (Part-time) 12 16.7 7 8.5 4 5.6 0 0.0
Unemployed 13 18.1 23 28.0 4 5.6 4 4.9
Total 72 100 82 100 72 100 82 100
Gender
Male 35 48.6 42 51.2 35 48.6 42 51.2
Female 37 51.4 40 48.8 37 51.4 40 48.8
Total 72 100 82 100 72 100 82 100
Household income
Less than IDR 3 Mil 6 8.3 18 22.0 0 0.0 0 0.0
IDR 3-5 Mil 29 40.3 48 58.5 16 22.2 15 18.3
IDR 5-10 Mil 18 25.0 5 6.1 32 44.4 29 35.4
IDR 10-20 Mil 13 18.1 11 13.4 24 33.3 37 45.1
More than IDR 20 Mil 6 8.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 1.2
Total 72 100 82 100 72 100 82 100
Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean S.D.
Household size 4.5 1.3 3.8 1.2 4.5 1.3 3.8 1.2
Number of vehicles
Car 1.0 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.1 0.7 1.1 0.6
Motorcycle 1.9 1.0 1.7 1.0 1.5 0.8 1.6 0.7
Car and Motorcycle 2.5 1.4 3.0 1.3 2.7 0.9 2.8 0.8
Age 36.5 9.8 35.7 11.2 36.5 9.8 35.7 11.2

Note: US$ 1 = IDR 14,000