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Tokey, Ahmad Ilderim. 2021. “E-Scooter’s Availability and Social Equity in Minneapolis, MN: A Spatial Modeling Approach.” Findings, October. https://doi.org/10.32866/001c.29149.
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  • Table 1. Descriptive statistics
  • Table 2. Regression results from SLM
  • Figure 1. Spatial distribution GWR coefficients
  • Table 3. Model Diagnostics of SLM and GWR
  • Figure 2. Correlation matrix for independent variables.


This article examines the social equity of e-scooter availability across different socially disadvantaged groups in Minneapolis, MN (USA). The city’s northwestern part with high poverty rates has a higher e-scooter availability rate than its counterparts. Also, this study did not find any significant inequality involved with race or educational attainment. However, while the city performed well on these, areas with a high percentage of commuters, dependent on transit, bike, and walking, have fewer e-scooters available on their streets. As such an area, the local models of this study underscore the need for more e-scooter deployment in areas close to downtown.

Accepted: October 12, 2021 AEST


Table 3.Model Diagnostics of SLM and GWR
Model diagnostics 2019 2020
GWR SLM (model 2) GWR SLM (model 4)
N 376 376 376 376
Adjusted R2 .50 0.53 .65 0.58
Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) 3285 3278 2886 2929
Distance band 5822 m NA 4110 m NA
Moran’s I (pattern of residual) .07*** (clustered) .010 (random) .02 (random) .014 (random)

*** p < 0.001

Figure 2.Correlation matrix for independent variables.